Sailmaking Viking Queen

Modern heavy weather sails are made of Kevlar – or something like it. Studies in Norway have indicated that the ninth century viking sailors used sails made mainly of wool – maybe with some hemp fibres. This makes absolute sense; arable land in the region would have...

Viking Age Geometry

Capability It could not have been possible to build the longships – or make their sails – without an arithmetic and geometric capability. Even the most visually and spatially capable person must, at some stage, record an idea, or communicate with lesser...

Belief Rituals

Whilst the writings in the Eddas and Sagas present a jumble of romantic (and perhaps) metaphorical ideas, the material finds of archaeologists, and the recordings of monks and other contemporary writers provide evidence of a slightly more certain kind. In Chapter 18...

What no maps?

The map I have created here might have been in the head of an extremely widely travelled Dane in 890 – someone like Othere or Wulfstan (see: The Voyage of Othere and Wulfstan ) the merchant adventurers who King Alfred employed. The record of their verbal reports...

Roman influence

Mention has been made in another post on Rivers and Roads of the importance of the remnants of the Roman road system. An interesting paper I found on the internet by chance was An Archaeological Resource Assessment and Research Agenda for the Early and Middle...

Danish Viking Moralities

At a conference held by the University of Copenhagen in 1979, Niels Lund decried the absence of good evidence concerning Danish medieval society and implied that we were wrong to accredit too much to the writings of Saxo Grammaticus in his twelfth century Gesta...
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